ELECTRIC CARS aka as Electric Vehicles (EV)
In 2016 we are hearing more and more about Electric Cars and how they are becoming more efficient. Most importantly how they have no emissions and consequently don't pollute. Of course, these are lies but don't think for yourself or ask the obvious. There is one question that no one seems to address let alone have an answer for is --
WHERE DOES THE ELECTRICITY TO POWER THE CAR COME FROM?
Certainly not from the battery which needs to periodically be charged up. Actually the "wall" electricity ultimately and most frequently comes from coal. Yes, Coal. Coal is burned in supercritical boilers and is about 31% thermodynamically efficient give or take 2%. Any plant that burns carbon based fuels emits combustion gases. Then this electricity has to be transported long distances to say cities such as Los Angeles and suffer electrical losses before being delivered to a wall receptacle. Electricity is typically a secondary source of energy in that most frequently coal, natural gas or diesel fuel is burned to generate the electricity. Yes, some electricity is generated by hydro but on the whole that is a minor source, at least in the United States.
Charging networks required
Tesla has constructed an extensive, according to them, Supercharger fast-charging network that can restore one of its vehicles to full charge in about an hour. Access to the network was free for all Tesla owners, but the company recently said that it will start charging a fee to new owners. For Tesla, this is an effort to preserve the network for drivers on longer trips and discourage it as an alternative to much slower home charging. Can you imagine going to a gas station and waiting an hour to fill up? I can't. I don't know how many miles a "fill up" provide.
The Lithium-ion batteries used in today's electric cars generally take hours to charge fully using 240-Volt charging stations. For example, Nissan says that charging the 2011 Leaf at home will take about 7 hours; Chevrolet says the 2011 Volt can recharge in about 4 hours.
A Ford electric car costs around $29,000. They are not cheap. I could not find on the Internet any "range" specifications but it is generally believed to be in the maximum 200-mile area.
Hydrogen cars are a nightmare dreamt up in California due to their alleged pollution free characteristic. Liquid hydrogen is stored in a tank in the car. Liquid Hydrogen is fed to a vaporizer which vaporizes the liquid to a gas. The Hydrogen gas is then fed to a fuel cell thereby generating electricity which powers the car. The question needs to be asked -- Where does the Hydrogen come from? This one is easier. The Hydrogen comes from either steam reforming of methane or from the electrical decomposition of water. Hydrogen gas has the greatest explosive limits (5% to 95%) of any chemical. The Hydrogen atom is so small that it may "leak" through most metals. Hydrogen can cause "Hydrogen embrittlement" in that the crystalline structure of the metal can be destroyed due to the porosity of steel subject to hydrogen. The steel can fracture as a result. Hydrogen has a negative Joule-Thompson coefficient and if leaking to the atmosphere, it can self-ignite under certain conditions. Another charming characteristic of Hydrogen is that it burns without a flame so that a person could burn themselves without any warning. We all need to remember the Hindenburg.
Whether Hydrogen is made from electrolysis or from steam reforming, the products have much less energy that the reactants. This hypocrisy is simply wasting energy and sending pollutants into the atmosphere in order to claim that we are saving energy and reducing pollution. Typical California environmental green party propaganda and I don't care where they went to acting school. This Hydrogen car thing simply won't work.
The simple fact of the matter is that the energy situation worldwide is in a state of flux. Who would have thought two years ago that the price of crude oil would be in the mid $40's in 2015-2016? No one. I rented a car last month and it got over 45 miles per gallon of gasoline and had a listed range of 345 miles. Phenomenal. I believe that those cars employ a variable number of cylinders to minimize gasoline demand.
Tesla, Elton Musk, is building a lithium battery facility plant about 30 miles east of Reno, Nevada. The entire Musk operation is based on millions if not billions of dollars in debt and ecological nonsense. "In 2015, Musk's statements came under further scrutiny after an LA Times article claimed that SpaceX, Tesla Motors and SolarCity had or were projected to receive together an estimated US $4.9 billion in government subsidies."
I do not believe that TESLA will survive two more years. One of the subsidiary questions is: Is there a sufficient amount of Lithium in the world to manufacture the batteries? Chile has the world's greatest reserves but the extraction of Lithium requires large amounts of electricity as does Aluminum and I question if a sufficient quantity of Lithium salts can be provided.